Matera - Wikipedia. Matera (Italian pronunciation: . It is the capital of the province of Matera and the capital of Basilicata from 1. The town lies in a small canyon carved out by the Gravina. Known as . The city was allegedly founded by the Romans in the 3rd century BC, with the name of Matheola after the consul Lucius Caecilius Metellus.
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In AD 6. 64 Matera was conquered by the Lombards and became part of the Duchy of Benevento. In the 7th and 8th centuries the nearby grottos were colonized by both Benedictine and Basilian monastic institutions. The 9th and 1. 0th centuries were characterized by the struggle between the Byzantines and the German emperors, including Louis II, who partially destroyed the city. After the settlement of the Normans in Apulia, Matera was ruled by William Iron- Arm from 1. After a short communal phase and a series of pestilences and earthquakes, the city in the 1. Aragonese possession, and was given in fief to the barons of the Tramontano family. In 1. 51. 4, however, the population rebelled against the oppression and killed Count Giovanni Carlo Tramontano.
In the 1. 7th century Matera was handed over to the Orsini and then became part of the Terre d'Otranto di Puglia. Later it was capital of Basilicata, a position it retained until 1. Joseph Bonaparte reassigned it to Potenza. In 1. 92. 7 it became capital of the province of Matera. On September 2. 1, 1. Materani rose against the German occupation, the first Italian city to fight against the Wehrmacht. Main sights. The Sassi originated in a prehistoric troglodyte settlement, and these dwellings are thought to be among the first ever human settlements in what is now Italy.
The Sassi are habitations dug into the calcareous rock itself, which is characteristic of Basilicata and Apulia. Many of them are really little more than caverns, and in some parts of the Sassi a street lies on top of another group of dwellings. The ancient town grew up on one slope of the rocky ravine created by a river that is now a small stream, and this ravine is known locally as .
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In the 1. 95. 0s, the government of Italy used force to relocate most of the population of the Sassi to areas of the developing modern city. Until the late 1. Sassi was considered an area of poverty, since its dwellings were, and in most cases still are, uninhabitable. The present local administration, however, has become more tourism- oriented, and it has promoted the regeneration of the Sassi with the aid of the Italian government, UNESCO, and Hollywood. Today there are many thriving businesses, pubs, and hotels there.
When it was founded it was called Eumolpias and was a Thracian settlement. It was conquered by the Macedonians and.
Monasteries and churches. Built in an Apulian Romanesque architectural style, the church has a 5. Maria della Bruna, backed by those of Saints Peter and Paul. The main feature of the fa.
The interior is on the Latin cross plan, with a nave and two aisles. The decoration is mainly from the 1. Baroque restoration, but recently. San Pietro Barisano was recently restored in a project by the World Monuments Fund, funded by American Express. The main altar and the interior frescoes were cleaned, and missing pieces of moldings, reliefs, and other adornments were reconstructed from photographic archives or surrounding fragments.
Some are simple caves with a single altar and maybe a fresco, often located on the opposite side of the ravine. Some are complex cave networks with large underground chambers, thought to have been used for meditation by the rupestric and cenobitic monks. Cisterns and water collection. Matera was built such that it is hidden, but made it difficult to provide a water supply to its inhabitants. Early dwellers invested tremendous energy in building cisterns and systems of water channels. The largest cistern has been found under Piazza Vittorio Veneto.
With its solid pillars carved from the rock and a vault height of more than fifteen meters, it is a veritable water cathedral, which is navigable by boat. Like other cisterns in the town, it collected rainwater that was filtered and flowed in a controlled way to the Sassi. There was also a large number of little superficial canals (rasole) that fed pools and hanging gardens. Moreover, many bell- shaped cisterns in dug houses were filled up by seepage. Later, when population increased, many of these cisterns were turned into houses and other kind of water- harvesting systems were realized. Some of these more recent facilities have the shape of houses submerged in the earth.
However, the construction remained unfinished after his assassination in the popular riot of 2. December 1. 51. 4. It has three large towers, while twelve were probably included in the original design.
During some restoration work in the main square of the town, workers came across what was believed to be the main footings of another castle tower. However, on further excavation large Roman cisterns were unearthed. Whole house structures were discovered where one can see how the people of that era lived. Found under the main square of the modern city was a large underground reservoir, complete with columns and a vaulted ceiling.
Culture. The following famous biblical period motion pictures were filmed in Matera: Other movies filmed in the city include: Matera appears in the music videos for the songs Sun Goes Down (2. Robin Schulz. The trip from Bari takes about one hour and thirty minutes The nearest airport is Bari airport and can be reached directly by train with a connection in Bari. Matera is connected to the A1. Bologna- Taranto motorway through the SS9. It is also served by the SS4. SS6. 65 and SS1. 06 national road.
Bus connection to Italy's main cities is provided by private firms.